By R. J. Roberts
Apoptosis in Toxicology is the 1st publication to target the molecular legislation of apoptosis with specific emphasis on toxicant motion. cellphone survival signalling and its perturbation is addressed on the genetic and biochemical point, together with key survival and loss of life genes, survival signalling, dedication to apoptosis and recruitment of the initiator and executioner caspases. Emphasis is given to the position apoptosis performs within the motion of toxicants within the mind, the immune approach, the reproductive organs, the kidney and the liver. the power of substances to manage apoptosis both as a goal or as an adversarial impression is mentioned with specific connection with melanoma chemotherapy. the numerous equipment that may be hired to quantify apoptosis are in comparison and their program to diversified tissues is mentioned. This well timed and finished quantity has been written via prime experts and energetic researchers of their respective fields. it is going to have vast entice toxicologists, physicians and biologists throughout many disciplines.
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3). The activated caspase then processes caspase3 and initiates the caspase cascade. , 1996) which can be cleaved by caspase-3, it is possible that activation of caspase-3 leads to further cleavage of caspase-9, thereby amplifying the caspase activation event. 26 ! , 1996). The mechanism by which the apoptosome complex activates caspase-9 remains to be elucidated, although evidence has been presented for a model in which Apaf-1 binds caspase-9 (through their respective CARD interaction domains) and then oligomerizes via the CED-4 homology domains, resulting in procaspase aggregation and activation (Srinivasula, 1998).
In this respect, any experimental drug design will almost certainly be based on peptide inhibitors; it is unlikely that a compound could be synthesized that would be specific for only one caspase. Thus, any use of such a compound raises the possibility of unwanted caspase inhibition with specificity of action and toxicity determined by the pharmacokinetic profile of the drug. There is good experimental evidence from animal studies to show that caspase inhibitor compounds can protect against excessive apoptosis in the whole animal.
1998). These results demonstrate that caspase activation and cell death can be induced directly and perhaps explains why these compounds are so toxic. 5 SUMMARY are tightly controlled. Precise metabolic pathways exist to activate the caspases, which then dismantle the cell. Ultimately, most death-inducing signals result in caspase activation and, as such, the caspases represent a common checkpoint for controlling cell death. In vivo studies strongly suggest that blocking caspase activity allows a cell to survive and the consequences of unwanted cells surviving can be dramatic and occasionally lethal to the organism.
Apoptosis in Toxicology by R. J. Roberts