By Arthur K. Cho, Terrence F. Blaschke, Paul A. Insel, Horace H. Loh
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Extra resources for Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology: 2003
These studies have provided the ultimate proof that RA (specifically all-trans and 9-cis RA) constitutes the active ingredient of vitamin A and its nuclear receptors are ligand-activated transcription factors responsible for regulating the expression of RA-responsive genes. However, it remains highly challenging to dissect the complex RA signaling pathways because the specificity of the actions of retinoids in different gene systems cannot be accounted for by the actions of the receptors alone.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 140301 Annu. Rev. Pharmacol. Toxicol. 2003. 140301 Copyright c 2003 by Annual Reviews. edu Key Words retinoic acid, coactivators, corepressors, gene transcription, chromatin ■ Abstract Retinoids regulate gene transcription by binding to the nuclear receptors, the retinoic acid (RA) receptors (RARs), and the retinoid X receptors (RXRs). RARs and RXRs are ligand-activated transcription factors for the regulation of RAresponsive genes. The actions of RARs and RXRs on gene transcription require a highly coordinated interaction with a large number of coactivators and corepressors.
7,8-Benzoflavone stimulates the metabolic activation of aflatoxin B1 to mutagens by human liver. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 82:348–55 Buening MK, Chang RL, Huang M-T, Fortner JG, Wood AW, Conney AH. 1981. Activation and inhibition of benzo[a]pyrene and aflatoxin B1 metabolism in human liver microsomes by naturally occurring flavonoids. Cancer Res. 41:67– 72 Huang M-T, Chang RL, Fortner JG, Conney AH. 1981. Studies on the mechanism of activation of microsomal benzo[a]pyrene hydroxylation by flavonoids.
Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology: 2003 by Arthur K. Cho, Terrence F. Blaschke, Paul A. Insel, Horace H. Loh