By Robert I. Frost
The Swedish invasion of 1655, recognized to Poles ever due to the fact that because the 'Swedish deluge', provoked the political and armed forces cave in of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, the second-largest country in Europe. Robert Frost examines the explanations for Poland's fall and the behavior of the conflict by way of the Polish executive, and addresses the an important query of why, regardless of common attractiveness of the shortcomings of the political process, next makes an attempt at reform failed. battle has lengthy been visible as an important to the improvement of more desirable platforms of presidency in Europe through the 17th century, yet reports often pay attention to states which replied effectively to the demanding situations. a lot may be discovered from those who failed, and the paucity of English-language fabric in this very important clash implies that After the Deluge will entice a large viewers between historians of Poland, Germany, Scandinavia, Russia, and early sleek Europe more often than not.
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Extra info for After the Deluge: Poland-Lithuania and the Second Northern War, 1655-1660
17 The term 'crisis' is overused by historians, but it is particularly applicable to the Commonwealth's experience in the aftermath of the Swedish deluge. Its failure to reform its political and military structures doomed it to impotence after 1668. Despite John III Sobieski's triumphs over the Turks at the second battle of Khotyn in 1673 and at Vienna in 1683, the Commonwealth's days of military glory were past: these victories were over an enemy who also failed to keep up with military change.
The chamber of envoys had nofixednumber of members: although most palatinates sent two envoys, some sent as many as six, while there was no limit on the number that could be sent by the palatinates of Royal Prussia. From 1635, the chamber had 172 members (118 from Poland, forty-eight from Lithuania and six 11 12 The size of the Polish nobility is a matter of some debate. 5 per cent before the First Partition. E. ' Kwartalnik Historyczny 94 (1987). The percentage was much higher in Royal Prussia and Poland proper than in Lithuania and the more sparsely populated eastern lands.
2 (1985) p. 17. Such agreements were signed by Sweden and Brandenburg (1667,1686,1696), Austria and Muscovy (1676), and Austria and Brandenburg (1686). K. Piwarski, 'Oslabienie znaczenia miedzynarodowego Rzeczypospolitej w drugiej polowie XVII wieku' Roczniki Historyczne 23 (1957) pp. 240-1. '19 Coxe found this phenomenon astonishing but there was a simple explanation: many Poles and Lithuanians had come to regard their own king as a greater threat to their precious liberties than foreign rulers who, in their own interests, swore to uphold them.
After the Deluge: Poland-Lithuania and the Second Northern War, 1655-1660 by Robert I. Frost