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Supplementation of vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) ANTIFUNGAL AGENTS Name two medications in the polyene antifungal drug class: Amphotericin B; nystatin What is the mechanism of action of the polyene antifungals? Forms artificial pores by binding to ergosterol in fungal membranes, thereby disrupting membrane permeability How do fungi become resistant to polyene antifungals? Reduction in the amount of membrane ergosterol What types of fungi are affected by amphotericin B? Candida; Aspergillus; Histoplasma; Cryptococcus; Rhizopus; Sporothrix Amphotericin B is synergistic with what other antifungal drug in the treatment of candidal and cryptococcal infections?

Azithromycin Which macrolide related antibiotic can cause hepatotoxicity and blurred vision? Telithromycin What are the clinical uses of telithromycin? Respiratory tract infections Give examples of how bacteria may become resistant to macrolide antibiotics: Alteration of binding sites on the 5OS ribosomal subunit; reduced permeability of cell membrane; active efflux; production of esterases by bacteria that hydrolyze the drug What are the adverse effects of erythromycin? Nausea; vomiting; diarrhea; anorexia; hepatitis; drug-drug interactions (cytochrome P-450 inhibitor) What organisms does clarithromycin cover that erythromycin does not?

Yes Is tigecycline a substrate for the efflux pump mechanism of resistance to tetracyclines? No What is the mechanism of action of chloramphenicol? Binds to 5OS ribosomal subunit to inhibit peptidyltransferase, thereby inhibiting bacterial protein synthesis What are the adverse effects of chloramphenicol? Gray baby syndrome in neonates (hypotension, ashen discoloration, vomiting, flaccidity); nausea, vomiting, diarrhea in adults, aplastic anemia; drug-drug interactions (CYP450 inhibitor) Give examples of streptogramin antibiotics: Quinupristin; dalfopristin What is the mechanism of action of streptogramin antibiotics?

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Acceptability of Risk From Radiation - Human Spaceflight


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