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Recent experiments (37) suggest that it is sufficiently fast, but more experiments are needed. Techniques using radio-frequency waves have been suggested for accelerating its removal, but these await demonstration now. This ash, if it accumulates, has the effect of reducing the densities of the fuel particles significantly for a given controlled electron density. Only one technique for measurement has so far been suggested. The technique makes use of the same active spectroscopic method with an incoming neutral beam discussed above for ion temperature measurement, but in this case the intensity of a visible spectral line of singly ionized helium will be measured (21).

The reaction is A PuBe source consists of a mixture of plutonium and beryllium powder that is doubly encased in stainless steel. Heat transfer from these sources is therefore poor, and they must be removed from a reactor prior to the production of any appreciable power. [It is important to recognize that removal of such a source from a critical reactor will cause a power increase because moderator (light water) replaces the space previously occupied by the steel casing.

When ionization occurs, the freed electrons and the ions drift, respectively, to the anode and the cathode. The term ‘‘ionization chamber’’ is used only for those chambers where the electric field is weak enough throughout the volume so that the electrons (and ions) do not attain sufficient energy between collisions to cause secondary ionization. This condition is met typically with field gradients less than 106 V/m. When the field is stronger and secondary ionization is used to amplify the ion current, the device is called a proportional counter.

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40.Nuclear Science by John G. Webster (Editor)

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